Multimedia Journalism A reflection

This unit has raised a lot of questions and has answered many as well. Before this unit, I had never interviewed anyone now I have. I learned a lot about listening and feeding of your interview subjects. I found that really it comes down to a few fundamentals. Good research, good listening and good people skills. The trick is to make a person who you have never met before feel like they have known you for ages and open up to you. I also realised you’re a facilitator of the stories being told not a participant, so listening interacting rather than telling is paramount.

There are two major other elements of my reading that stand out is the implementation of technology related to Mojo journalism and its ethical implications. 

The technology has major benefits, anyone can be at the scene of a happening news story. There can be events in countries where freedoms are limited that can be covered and dispatched via online methods. It has opened up the world, secrets are much harder to keep secret. This is all down to the invention of the smartphone and then the citizen journalist, it isn’t all good though.

Because of the technological innovations, it is also now easier to submit news and with ease comes abuses of that new found power. I read about a situation at a football club where the PR person for the club said absolutely no interviews for the football player in question. After the press conference had finished, the said journalist walked with the said player and just started chatting. Little did the player know he was speaking on the record and being filmed at the same time by an inconspicuous phone. The technology has also enabled people to shoot incredibly violent macabre events and post them unfettered online. The question arose for me so how do we find the middle ground, where all the benefits of this movement in news can be encompassed yet areas such as taste, ethics and decency can be practised. It’s a hard question to answer as all news agencies now are so competitive. The pressures on journalists high and budgets are plummeting. The temptation is to throw your ethics out the window to get the most dramatic story possible, to trump your competitors. I know this for a fact having been a news editor myself. I look at it this way to use an analogy. Before politicians go into parliament they have principles and ethics, but when they join they enter parliament they have to throw their beliefs out for the party. That is the state of Journalism as I see it and from what I picked up completing my blogs.


What are some of the main ethical concerns multimedia and mobile journalists need to keep in mind ?

With the advent of the Mojo journalist, several key negative ethical issues have arisen. Firstly with the new found speed to which a Mojo journalist can post there news brings problems also. The news world is extremely competitive so speed is paramount to beat the competition. What suffers?, fact checking does. With the technology so mobile and so small, many would have the inclination to be covert in recording discussions and filming without prior authority, after all, who is going to suspect a phone they are small and covert.

One way to destroy your career quickly would be to start filming in a private event where strictly no media are allowed. The temptation is to film and catch a public figure doing something they should not, but alas if it isn’t in a public place they have every right to come after you.

Then there is the case of Neda Agha Soltan, she was shot in Iran in 2009 and a mojo amateur journalist filed the whole thing and posted it on social media. It was then picked up by mass media and reported on widely. It could be argued that posting a video of a woman bleeding to death is in bad taste but equally so it could be said that doing so brings light to this issue that might not have been reported otherwise. These are the challenges that being ethical brings.


Burum, I., 2015. MOJO: the Mobile Journalism Handbook. 1st ed. Usa: Taylor & Francis Group




How is the increasing use of social media as a news source affecting journalism?

Social media has been revolutionary to the work of the Journalist. Before social media, the Journalist would have to hit the beat make calls and have contacts to even generate a story. Now, these things still exist but many stories start via social media and give the basis for further investigation.

Social media has become an important investigative and communication tool as well. Michael Bachelard interviewed asylum seekers in Indonesia and then kept in touch with them via social media to chart their plight for a story. Social media also breaks down the walls of control, no longer can companies or governments control their information in the way they could. It is a lot harder for stories to stay buried, a post on Facebook or maybe Twitter could be all it takes to expose corruption or illegality within an organisation. Often stories start with the citizen journalist reporting what they have seen or even taking video. This often happens in countries with locked down regimes stop the flow of information. The big news outlets take the citizen reports and repackage them for a wider audience, often they will take several citizen reports and cut them into one package. 


Julia Haslanger. 2018. Day in the Life of a Social Media Coordinator: New York Post’s Delia Paunescu. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 27 September 2018].


Amanda Gearing. 2018. How social media is helping Australian journalists uncover stories hidden in plain sight. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 24 September 2018]


Michael Bachelard. 2018. Asylum seekers on the doorstep of United Nations office in Jakarta with nowhere to turn. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 24 September 2018]


My Project is now live

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As part of my transition, from editing news to a content creator, I have as part of my studies in Journalism created

Here I had to be a one man band. I wrote, voiced interviewed shot and designed the whole project.  The project basically tells the story of Indie musicians, how they make a dollar sell their product and gives a bit of reality to what one needs to know to survive as a self managed artist.

The site has profiles on the 3 participants, Sophie Koh , Josh Voce and Georgia Fields as well as some recordings I made of them playing acoustically. It also has a podcast discussion about indie music and a news and radio package about the industry.

There is lots of media to watch and listen to and lots of things to click on.

I learned a lot from the experience and felt more confident as I did more interviewing. It was a real labour of love and I hope that comes through in the end product.

How might the rapid uptake of live video streaming such as Facebook live change journalism as we know it?

Facebook live has enabled Journalists to take the user or viewer beyond the story.  When a news story breaks the Journalist can simply start a stream via Facebook and report instantly what is happening without delay. Where the medium really excels is the viewership and interactivity can then participate in the feed by asking questions of the journalist in the field. It​ allows the journalist to be expansive in his reporting rather than packaged and brief which happens in daily news packages.

News networks have adapted to Facebook live in differing ways, for instance, Sky news Australia stream live press conferences especially political ones. An example of this was the recent change of leadership of the Liberal party there were content full live unedited pressers and expanded streamed discussions via the platform.



The other important part of facebook live is the citizen journalist, where professional journalists can or won’t go a citizen can film and describe what is going on. An example of this was the shooting of Philando Castile. During a traffic stop a cop pulled a weapon, and shot him.His girlfriend streamed in on Facebook live. This led to a lot of healthy debate over racism against blacks by cops. Also led to the police officer being charged with manslaughter. My final point here the negatives. In this case, the facebook live only showed one context of the event happening, this can be a major drawback in presenting some kind of truth on the day there was dash cam footage as well of before the Facebook live stream started, which adds detail and context.

The later the girl friend posted a Facebook live video after the event. Giving voice to her skilled boyfriend. It could be argued her videos were journalism but then something interesting happened the networks took her content and packaged it into news packages. So the question arises are citizen journlists now the creators of journliam or are they the stories unto themselves.





Washington Post Mark Berman. 2018. What the police officer who shot Philando Castile said about the shooting. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 3 September 2018].


New York Daily news. (2017). Philando Castile’s Girlfriend ‘Emotional Address’ On Facebook Live stream. [Online Video]. 7 July 2016. Available from: [Accessed: 3 September 2018].

Matt Dusenbury Medium. 2018. Matt Dusenbury. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 3 September 2018].


ABC NEWS. (2018). Philando Castile Shooting Livestream Video [GRAPHIC CONTENT]. [Online Video]. 7 July 2016. Available from: [Accessed: 3 September 2018].





What role is smartphone, or mobile journalism (MOJO) playing in contemporary journalism? Contains unread posts

Mojo Journalism is part of democratisation, a movement which is occurring across all media forms.

It is all about a power shift, taking the power from a few and giving it to the many. Now anyone can be a journalist. With the advent of mobile phone , the citizen journalist can go places and report on events that a professional crew never could.

There are examples of this in recent years. During the arab spring many governments in the middle east started to fall due to people movement revolts and an undying want for change. Most of these events were reported using mobile phones. It was to dangerous for media organisations so the people because the reporters on the ground. In Egypt all international news networks were thrown out by the then president Hosni Mubarak.

Aljazeera had a quoted 4000 citizen journalists at the events during the fall of the Egyptian president. News was instant as it happened, it was being fed back to the networks bypassing the controls put on by a failing government.

This form of journalism challenges established power structures leads to the exposing of corruption, brutality and gives power back to the people.


How the Arab Spring has Transformed Journalism « Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ). 2018. How the Arab Spring has Transformed Journalism « Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ). [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 26 August 2018].

Burum, I., 2015. MOJO: the Mobile Journalism Handbook. 1st ed. united states: Taylor & Francis Group.

SAROSHISAR. 2018. ROLE OF CELL PHONES IN ARAB SPRING. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 26 August 2018].




What has been the impact of convergence on journalism? Can journalism survive in analogue (non-digital) forms?  How well are traditional news outlets adapting? 

I saw this happening first hand in my work. In the early 2010’s expectations were changing. I was working at the ABC , desktop editing was becoming the norm. Journalists now bought their reports back to the base had the media ingested then from their desk could edit their report for television, radio and online. Lots of training was taking place. They now had to learn to edit audio and video. As an editor, I can’t tell you how many times a journo would also be running off to do live radio crosses as well. Their time was and is spread very thin. Basically, my role was taken over by journalists it was very hard to maintain shifts if all you were , was an editor. The systems and work methods were all bought in to do more with less staff.

I later saw this again when I worked in London, cost cutting was rampant, myself and one other guy were doing the work of which six editors were responsible before me. Working conditions were not good, you were overworked couldn’t take breaks as because of cost cutting and convergence. Last I heard my role in that company is now done by the multimedia department.

Under this move to convergence, organisations are having to do more with less. There is less diversity, less quality fewer media ownership which means more bias less deep investigative journalism as well. With the recent Nine Fairfax deal, newspapers have only been guaranteed for the next 5 years and regional newspapers look like their days are numbered. My take from this is whilst we continue to get a large volume of news, quality, fact checking the number of opportunities will lesson as these mega corporations trim down there workforces all in the attempt to grow profits.


The New Daily. (2018). Regional news, charter at risk in Nine’s Fairfax takeover. [online] Available at: [Accessed 31 Jul. 2018].


The New Daily. (2018). Regional news, charter at risk in Nine’s Fairfax takeover. [online] Available at: [Accessed 31 Jul. 2018].



How common or widespread is the use of multimedia journalism in the media?

The adaption of multimedia Journalism has completely changed the way the newsroom works and functions. As someone who used to work in newsrooms, the multimedia department was small, then the change came and everyone in the newsroom had to have those skills.

News is no longer reported in one form or another, it is always a combination of many differing media forms. When one logs into a news site such as a Fairfax paper for example. You were confronted with video at the top of the page, then followed by text and in some cases even links to a podcast.

Lately the design of The Age has changed they seem to be pulling some of the elements back a bit. Gone are the auto playing videos in most cases. We are seeing a cleaner interface with with small well laid out text passages with very clear headings interspearsed with photographs, and even live blogging and social media posts. is a news site that uses multimedia elements very sucsesfully. On one page you will find , audio video photography and text as well as social posts all laid out in a way that interweaves the elements to tell one complete story. Screen Shot 2018-07-10 at 2.33.07 pm

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Multimedia elements help to tell a  targeted engaging story. Peoples attention span’s are not what they used to be, so engaging all these elements helps to draw in the audience , stay longer and in most cases be, marketed to using ads.

My viewing of online content mainly begins within social media channels. I follow most things I am interested in and follow the links out to the stories. Doing this is akin to utilising a form of curation designed just for you.





The Age. (2018). Latest & Breaking News Melbourne, Victoria | The Age. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jul. 2018].

Pedestrian TV. (2018). Elon Musk Has Inserted Himself Into The Thai Cave Rescue, Literally. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jul. 2018].


The making of The digital evolution of the Library Video (A personal reflection)

I decided to do the cultural institution questions about the library. There are a few reasons for this. I believed at the time it would be easier to get permissions to film and interview people. I also saw a road I wanted to follow, in regards to the research involved.

Very early on I contacted quite a few libraries to ask one, if I could film inside and two, could I get an interview. Without naming names, the task was exceptionally difficult, as I learned libraries and cultural institutions as a whole are exceptionally procedural. One of the biggest libraries after about 16 emails back and forth were willing to supply a staff member to answer my questions. I make contact and it turns out, the contact I had been conversing with hadn’t told her I’d be filming her. So she later refused. Another library coordinator, who is responsible for around six libraries put infant of my ten conditions. I had to supply insurance, letters from the university. It was all too much with a deadline looming to which I needed to start putting my video together. So enter Deakin, again I contacted the library after a few emails exchanged with a few different people. I was about to get Marina on camera, who offered up many interesting insights for my project. I had originally hoped to film at the “big library” and have 2 interviews to juxtapose differing takes on similar issues. But alas that wasn’t to be.

What I have learned from attempting to get permissions for a project are as follows:
Prepare a brief, separate to an email which contains the following
Synopsis of your project.
Who is the project for?
Where will the project be screened or used?
A spiel about you and who you represent.
A sampling of the questions you’re going to ask.
How long will the filming take?
Where do you want to film?

I found by sending more general emails not formatted in a professional brief, information was passed over, miscommunication was prevalent. One administrator said and I quote “ I don’t get it” Send me a synopsis. I thought I had clearly played out the question that had to be answered. But alas you live and learn, how you see things is not necessarily how others do.˙

I come from a background editing news, I was handed scripts and the vision to cut with. The process of doing all the steps myself was welcomed but slightly overwhelming to. I had to develop new processes. What I did was divided the video into parts. After filming the interview and clipping it up, I developed my argument around what things came up in the discussion.
I was given feedback on my first assignment the quotes didn’t flow with my text. So I made very sure my interview grabs, quotes, and text built on each other.
My other issue was in obtaining enough visual material to make the piece visually interesting. I had to not only shoot some overlay, but I also had to dig very deep through online creative commons archives. This really tested my research abilities. I used youtube, Flickr, state and national libraries and different archives to obtain what I needed. For my scholarly research, I used Deakin’s Library online, as well as google scholar. I had to experiment with search terms to find what I was after.

Did digital technology save the Library? Well, it was never in danger. What I took from this assignment was that digital pushed a very old stuck in its ways establishment, to modernise and become relevant. What I took from this assignment was that this 2.0 theory can be applied to almost everything from education to the web. It applies across many different cultural institutions as well.

Interview with Marina Minns Deakin University Library

2nd interview was from CC British library video referenced below.

All music created by Greg Orr unless otherwise referenced.

Rubin, R., 2017. Foundations of Library and Information Science, Fourth Edition. 4th ed. United States: American Library Association.

Maness, J, (2006) “Library 2.0 Theory: Web 2.0 and its implications for
Libraries” Webology, 3 (2), Article 25.
Available at

Fabunmi, A, Ayodeji Fabunmi, B , Paris M 2006.
Digitization of Library Resources: Challenges and Implications For Policy and Planning.
International Journal of African & African- American Studies, [Online]. 5, 2.
Available at: [Accessed 17 January 2018].

UT Libraries: Online Tour –
Top 10 Things to Know About the Library s
Under creative commons license

Newspaper resources State Library w
Under creative commons license

Building a Digital Resource on Gulf History – My Work at British Library
Under creative commons license

University of Wisconsin Library (1929) Under creative commons license

Digitizing of collections Under creative commons license

Marvellous Melbourne Spenser C 1910 Under creative commons

Sons of Australia march Under creative commons

Megan Amara, (2007), bookshelves [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 22 January 2018]. Accessed under creative commons

Google Logo Public domain/creative commons

Using online social platforms that define my online identity.

Who am I? I am Greg I know who I am, I have a pretty good idea of how people see me. I know this because meeting me in person you have my body language, the way I talk and what I talk about to draw your own conclusions. Online identity is a completely different kettle of fish. Vlogger Justine Ezarik reflects

“When I found the internet, I realised I didn’t have to go anywhere to travel the world. I didn’t have to be Justine from the middle of nowhere, I could be whoever I wanted. I chatted with strangers and invented elaborate backstories far more interesting than my own, and started for the first time , like I was part of some sort of community” Ezarik 15

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We are in charge of our image, our identity, this message varies from what platforms you participate in, who you are as a person even down to what one’s end goal is for there online participation.

“ Here we are a construct of our real world self, collated , edited and presented . A profile and displayed connections present a set of signals to potential audiences, which are interpreted by viewers to gauge the credibility and reliability of information that they are viewing “ Papacharissi 09

Then there is my blog a curated repository of all I wish to present. I use imagery, text, and links to purvey a sense of my professional identity. I have had feedback that possibly my site lacks a bit of focus, particularly as far as my personal brand. The site is a depositary of my creative work and my online image as a creative person. Utilising it, I link to various folios of work when applying for a professional engagement. My blog speaks about all that I am passionate about, it shows my abilities over several media forms and promotes me the person.
Susanne Markgren in her paper about online portfolios says

“ Your online portfolio is basically your resume, deconstructed on a website” She also refers to branding “The public and projection of an individuals identity , personality , values skills and abilities” Markgren 11

So based upon this I have to ask myself, Is my Blog or even my use of other platforms helping or hindering my brand. When I started building my online personas I don’t think I had an end goal in mind. It has always concerned me that one doesn’t tie into another.

My showreel is my calling card as an editor. It’s my identity to other professionals, it is a representation of my life work. My showreel has always been a bone of contention for me. How do you represent who you are or what you are in under two minutes? Especially considering I am a storyteller and a multi-skilled person who shoots, edits is a photographer, has a lot of experience and knowledge.

A finished edit with a piece from here and a piece from there, in my opinion, doesn’t truly show what you are capable of. My last reel I even consulted another editor who helped me put it together. The way I got around the shortcomings of the showreel format, was to link to full pieces I have done. This is accomplished with links on my Blog and any applications I might send out. That way it gives the person the option of both. Whilst this isn’t perfect, at this stage that is what I use.

Let’s face it nowadays if you are applying for a position, the employer will google you looking for that one mistake that shows you might be dishonest or not all your cracked up to be. So googling myself with the this in mind, I came up with a poet from the United States, adding Greg Orr Video Editor, the person is presented with my blog and links to my different folios. What I found fascinating about this, my identity is my other less professional personas were lower down in the search. Susanna Margren also speaks to this “Now you have a professional online identity, you need to monitor it, search your name regularly and make sure you can find yourself”

Facebook started as one thing and developed into another. It started as a way to follow my favorite musicians, actors writers tv shows etc. But as time grew it became a lot more. Discovering Facebook groups in their infancy was a revelation to me.  In my real life, where I didn’t have anyone to share my differing passions with I now had the world.  Now I could discuss the latest drone technology or debate complex topics or even argue what was Paul McCartney’s best solo record. Here I can be myself hidden behind a persona and not afraid to express myself. People who don’t agree with what I say fire back at my persona. Somehow this isn’t as confronting as someone confronting me in real life. Its almost like you have a 3rd wall infant of you to protect you and your feelings. Here I am a reviewer, a challenger of ideas and sometimes I share pieces of media into groups for their critique.

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Critiquing isn’t always done with words, what I have learned is that each network has different ways to show praise or displeasure for certain content.

“In the absence of sufficient relational cues, individuals in social networking sites take the initiative to develop their own codes for communicating likes or dislikes, interest and depth of association with others, as these individuals present themselves online “( PAPACHARISSI ,2006)

Recently I have completed a project, a short film for which I started a Facebook project page. Very few comment but I get constant views and constant likes. In the Facebook world, the language of the like button and having many likes gives the online me, an air of legitimacy and confidence that brings others to view the project. It is a bit like you turning up to a restaurant that is empty or one that is full, which would you choose.

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Photos..Greg Orr

Twitter the micro blogging platform, is the most recent platform I have partaken in. For me, Twitter has been more of an enigma than a straightforward platform to understand. I believe this is why its usage is far below that of Facebook. Someone coming to Twitter from Facebook has to understand, all its different elements such as hashtags and what its used for.

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“Twitter has been likened to a giant party where you know no one but wish to make many friends. In contrast, Facebook would be a wedding reception filled with family and friends.” Tagtmeier 2010

Without sticking to the rules and an unwritten formula, the challenge of getting interaction is harder.

“The ideal Twitter profile should consist of “about 30% conversational @replies, 30% retweets and 40% interesting broadcast tweets, hopefully with an opinion or link, of which only about 25% (10% of total tweets) are self-promotional.” In other words, a successful Twitter campaign honestly connects with its followers” Tagtmeier 2010

For me, I have used it for many different uses, from promoting Ebay sales promoting my different projects to again including oneself in discussions about one’s passions. But unlike Facebook, unto recently I haven’t got that interaction the Facebook groups gave me. What has changed recently has been my better use of hashtags. I still can’t kick the feeling, I have to work harder to get that interaction level on Twitter.

Linkedin has always been a important tool for me. It links all my social media together as well as being the tool I use to keep my resume and to network.

“Online communities have paved new paths for job seeking in the computer-mediated communication (CMC) environment” (Ikenberry, Hibel, & Freedman, 2010)

Whilst Linkedin is nowhere the size of either Facebook or Twitter, it has other advantages. Most professional power brokers in my field are on the platform, making it an easy and useful tool to network grow relationships and share projects, writings or folio material. I do all 3 personally and have met some fantastic people through the platform who have shared their expertise and given there time. The messaging system is great, it allows you to send someone a note and intern they can see who you are and your work history. In my opinion, it’s a win-win. Because platforms like Twitter are so open, busy professionals can get spammed heavily and receive messages not relevant to their end goals. Somehow LinkedIn feels different, it’s professional where professional discussions and activities are done. I have built up a large network within Linkedin which is basically a community.  I have added asked people to join my network whom I have met in real life, and approached those I haven’t met with a short note explaining why I would like them on my network. I Use these contacts to follow up jobs, the network for any opportunities.

Below is a visual representation using slides of my uses for the various platforms I use, and how I utilise their features.

Tagtmeier, c, 2010. Facebook vs. Twitter: Battle of the Social Network Stars. Information Today, [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 23 November 2017].

PAPACHARISSI, Z, 2009. The virtual geographies of social networks: a comparative analysis of Facebook, LinkedIn and ASmallWorld. new media & society, [Online]. . Available at: [Accessed 22 November 2017]

Ezarik, J., 2015. An Analog Memoir. 1st ed. united states: Keywords Press.

Markgren, S, 2017. Ten simple steps to create and manage your professional online identity. Academia, [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 22 December 2017]